Global Distribution of Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: A Scoping Review IGM Global Distribution

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Sepehr Metanat
Yekta Soleimani Jobaneh
Maedeh Noori
Farhood Sadeghi
Abbas Mirzapour
Negar Mashoori
Sara Mossahebi
Ahmad Kaviani
Mojgan Karbakhsh


Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, Granulomatous Mastitis, Ethnicity, Race, Distribution.


Background: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a challenging exclusion diagnosis for breast lesions, manifested as benign, chronic inflammation of the breast tissue. Although some evidence suggest that IGM cases are not uniformly distributed worldwide, few investigations have specifically addressed this topic. This study aims to examine the distribution of IGM cases among countries and races/ethnicities based on reported cases.
Methods: A review of studies with a report of at least one IGM patient published from 2011 to 2020 inclusive was conducted. The search was performed in MEDLINE, and citations were filtered in two stages by title/abstract and full text. Those cases with a positive growth of pathogens, male granulomatous mastitis and review articles were excluded.
Results: Among 365 retrieved publications, 218 were finally included based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, comprising 7161 patients from 34 different countries. Turkey, the United States, and China were the countries where the most publications (including case reports) originated. Considering the number of patients within papers, Turkey, Iran, and China were the pioneers.
Conclusion: Based on the published literature, some populations seem to be more prone to IGM. Further investigations may reveal the genetic and environmental factors associated with this disease in different geographic areas.


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