1. Open Access
  2. What do we publish? 
    2.1 Aims & scope 
    2.2 Article types
    2.3 Writing your paper 
  3. Editorial policies 
    3.1 Peer review policy
    3.2 Authorship 
    3.3 Acknowledgements 
    3.4 Funding 
    3.5 Declaration of conflicting interests 
    3.6 Research ethics and patient consent 
    3.7 Clinical trials 
    3.8 Reporting guidelines 
  4. Publishing policies
    4.1 Publication ethics 
    4.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement 
  5. Preparing your manuscript 
    5.1 Word processing formats 
    5.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics 
    5.3 Supplementary material 
    5.4 Reference style 
    5.5 English language editing services
    5.6 DOI Number
  6. Submitting your manuscript 
    6.1 How to submit your manuscript 
    6.2 cover letter, title page, keywords and abstracts 
    6.3 Information required for completing your submission 
    6.4 Permissions 
  7. On acceptance and publication 
    7.1 ABC Production 
    7.2 Online publication
    7.3 Application of Waiver
    7.4 Article processing charge (APC) 
    7.5 Complaints Procedure
  8. Further information


1. Open Access

Archives of Breast Cancer (ABC) provides immediate open access to its contents with the goal of contributing to a greater global exchange of knowledge. Through open access publication of ABC, we aim to broaden the free and full-access reach of the users all over the world to the published articles.

All the published material in ABC are, under a Creative Commons license, free to view and reuse with attribution by anyone in the world via the internet.


2. What do we publish? 

2.1 Aims & scope 

ABC is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that publishes articles on all aspects of breast cancer research, including the pathophysiology, prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment, molecular and cellular biology, genetics, epidemiology, psychological issues, rehabilitation, and quality of life. Although the main focus of the journal is breast cancer, important topics on benign breast diseases and breast health, such as breastfeeding, will be considered for publication.


2.2 Article types

  • Original article

These are reports of original experiment/research conducted by the authors. Original research must add to the body of knowledge on the subject and should adhere to ethical principles throughout the procedure. Studies using human or animal subjects must have ethical approvals.

Original articles should not exceed 5,500 words including abstract, references, figure legends, and tables. The number of tables, figures, and references should be appropriate to the manuscript content. Authors whose first language is not English are advised to have their manuscripts checked carefully before submission.

Abbreviations of standard SI units of measurement should be used.

Sections of an original article are: (1) title page, (2) abstract, (3) keywords, (4) introduction, (5) methods, (6) results, (7) discussion, (8) acknowledgments, (9) conflicts of interest, (10) references, (11) figure and video legends, (12) tables, (13) figures, and (14) videos whenever applicable.


  • Short communication

A small-scale study that includes important new information may be published as a short communication. It usually carries an abstract of up to 150 words, a body of up to 800 words, up to 2 tables or figures, and essential references. 

Sections of a short communication paper are: (1) title page, (2) abstract, (3) keywords, (4) introduction, (5) methods, (6) results, (7) discussion, (8) acknowledgments, (9) conflicts of interest, (10) references, (11) figure and video legends, (12) tables, (13) figures, and (14) videos whenever applicable.


  • Commentary

Commentaries discuss the findings, implications, and/or outcomes of specific research or wider research on a general topic. They elaborate on or offer original ideas about a specific paper or a widely-researched subject. Commentaries differ from reviews in that they represent the author’s original ideas and suggestions instead of reporting and comparing the previous research. Word count should not exceed 1500 in the commentaries, excluding the references.

Sections of a commentary include (1) title page, (2) keywords, (3) text, (4) acknowledgments, (5) conflicts of interest, and (6) references.


  • Editorial 

Editorials are usually written by the editor in chief, deputy editor in chief, an associate editor, or a guest editor and are intended to represent the official opinion of the journal (or the guest editor) or introduce supplements, special issues, or new ideas relevant to the journal. In limited circumstances, individuals other than the individuals listed here may propose an editorial topic if they wish. Word count should not exceed 1500 in the commentaries, excluding the references.

Sections of an editorial include (1) title page, (2) keywords, (3) main manuscript (4) acknowledgments, (5) conflicts of interest, (6) references.


  • Letter to the editor

Letters commenting on, questioning, or criticizing articles recently (within the past 4 issues) published in ABC or expressing views on relevant topics will be considered for publication. Word count should not exceed 1500 in the commentaries, excluding the references.

Sections of a letter to the editor are (1) title page, (2) keywords, (3) text, (4) acknowledgments, (5) conflicts of interest, and (6) references.


  • Case report and case series

Case reports include case report/studies of patient(s) and describe a novel approach or add important insights into mechanisms, diagnosis, or treatment of a disease. Case reports are limited to 1,500 words including references. A case report manuscript should include (1) title page, (2) structured abstract (including background, case presentation, and conclusion), (3) keywords, (4) introduction, (5) case presentation, and (7) discussion. It should also contain discussion, acknowledgments, references, and illustrations (if applicable) as explained for the original articles.

All ethical considerations according to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, especially the informed consent in case reports, should be included at the end of the text just before the references.


  • Review article

A review article provides a detailed, thorough examination and summary of the literature on a specific topic. Authors are encouraged to contact the editor in chief (akaviani@archbreastcancer.com) before preparing an unsolicited review article to avoid duplication of other works already in progress. Review articles are limited to 7,000 words, including references, and should include the following sections: (1) title page, (2) structured abstract, (3) keywords, (4) introduction, (5) methods (search strategy), (6) results, (7) discussion, (8) acknowledgements, (9) conflicts of interest, (10) references, (11) figure legends, (12) tables, and (13) figures, whenever applicable.


  • Clinical experience

In this type of manuscripts, the authors explore a debate in the clinical dilemma by presenting one or more patients whose records are presented in the tumor board or multidisciplinary team (MDT) session of the hospital. The clinical decision which is made in the sessions are argued in this type of the manuscripts according to the scientific evidence.

Section of review article: (1) title page, (2) abstract, (3) keywords, (4) introduction, (5) case presentation, (6) question, (7) discussion, (8) acknowledgments, (9) conflicts of interest, (10) references, (11) figure legends, (12) tables, and (13) figures whenever it would be applicable.


2.3 Writing your paper

2.3.1 General format

All manuscripts should be prepared using MS Word (in .doc or .docx format). Submissions in the form of PDF files are not accepted. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, including text, tables, legends, and references.

Number each page and avoid footnotes; instead, and as sparingly as possible, use parentheses within the text. Use the Tab key once for paragraph indents, Times New Roman typeface for the text and Symbols for Greek and special characters.


2.3.2 Main sections of the manuscript

Papers can be divided into the following sections:



- State clearly the main objectives of the study.

- Indicate the main reasons for doing the work.

- A detailed review of the literature is not recommended.

- The content should be accompanied by relevant references.



- Mention the type of study.

- Describe the methods, tools, and procedures employed with sufficient details to allow others to reproduce the results without the need to communicate with the authors.

- Describe the intervention and control groups, when relevant.

- Mention the type of statistical tests used.

- The rationale for using specific statistical tests, if applicable.

- State statistical significance when appropriate.


ABC complies with the COPE guidelines; therefore, all researchers are asked to read these guidelines to avoid cases of suspected research and publication misconduct (e.g., falsification, fabrication, plagiarism, inappropriate image manipulation, and redundant publication). For more information about COPE, please visit http://www.publicationethics.org.

Also, the authors should state that their study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki, that the locally appointed ethics committee has approved the research protocol, and that informed consent has been obtained from the subjects (or their guardians).



- State findings of the study in the text, tables, or figures, and do not repeat the same findings in tables and figures and the text.

- Be precise and do not include material that is appropriate for the discussion, e.g., explanation of findings.

- Use the metric system/SI units to report scientific quantities and measurements.



- State the original and important features of the study. Do not repeat the findings presented in the results section.

- Contain the significance of the findings and the relevance to previously published studies.

- State only the conclusions that are supported by the data.

- Mention the limitations and applications of the results.


2.3.3 Making your article discoverable

From the moment you set about writing the first draft of your manuscript, think about how you can make it more discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines.


3. Editorial policies

3.1 Peer review policy

Peer review is an integral part of scientific publishing that confirms the validity of the science reported. Peer-reviewers are experts who volunteer their time to help improve the journal manuscripts they review—they offer authors free advice.

Key characteristics of the peer review process are listed below:

    All research articles are reviewed by at least two qualified experts.

    All publication decisions are made by the journal’s editor in chief on the basis of the reviews.

    Members of the editorial board lend insight, advice, and guidance to the editor in chief generally and assist decision making on specific submissions.


-   Initial manuscript evaluation

All manuscripts submitted to ABC are read by the editorial staff. To save time for authors and reviewers, only those papers that seem most likely to meet our editorial criteria are sent for formal review. Those papers judged by the editors to be of insufficient general interest or otherwise inappropriate are rejected promptly without external review (although these decisions may be based on informal advice from specialists in the field).


-   Type of peer review

ABC employs a double-blind review process, where both the reviewer and author remain anonymous throughout the process.


-   Selecting peer reviewers

Reviewer selection is critical to the publication process, and we base our choice on many factors, including expertise, reputation, specific recommendations, and our own previous experience of a reviewer’s characteristics.

Reviewers should strive to observe the principle of confidentiality with regard to materials submitted to them.


-   How long does the review process take?

Typically the manuscript will be reviewed within 4 weeks.


-   Final report

A final decision to accept or reject the manuscript will be sent to the author along with any recommendations made by the reviewers and may include verbatim comments by the reviewers.


3.2 Authorship 

Only when all the contributing authors give consent should a manuscript be submitted to a journal. The corresponding author should make sure that everyone whose work contributed to the manuscript is acknowledged as a contributing author. Only those who can legitimately claim authorship should be listed as authors. This consists of (a) contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data for the work; (b) drafting the work or revising it critically; and (c) final approval of the version to be published. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

When a study is conducted by a large, multicenter group, the group must identify the individuals who can take direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should meet all the criteria mentioned above.

Acquisition of funds, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not qualify one as an author; however, the contributors not meeting the authorship criteria should be acknowledged. For more information on authorship requirements see the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines.


3.3 Acknowledgements 

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined previously should be listed in the Acknowledgment section. Examples include a department chairperson who provided only general support, a person who provided purely technical help, or writing assistance.


3.4 Funding 

Authors should provide detailed information regarding the source of financial and material support (grant number, etc.) for the research under a separate heading. If no funding is provided for the research, include the following statement:

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


3.5 Declaration of conflicting interests 

State all funding sources and the names of companies, manufacturers, or external organizations providing technical or equipment support.

Visit ICMJE recommendations for more guidance on conflict of interest statements. 


3.6 Research ethics and patient consent 

Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

Manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals. All manuscripts reporting animal or human studies should state in the Methods section that ethical approval has been obtained from (or waived by) an ethics committee or institutional review board. Please make sure of providing the full name of the review committee as well as the approval number.

For research articles, a statement should be included in the Methods section indicating that informed consent, written or verbal, was obtained from participants. Case reports and case series, too, should provide an informed consent statement in the manuscript text. Also, manuscripts are required to state whether written informed consent was obtained for publication of patient information and images. 

Do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself is a violation of the patient’s confidentiality. It suffices to submit a confirmatory letter along with the manuscript that written informed consent has been obtained from the patient and that the forms are kept by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. See the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants for more information.

Studies involving animal subjects are required to have the approval of an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The journal has adopted the Consensus Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics and Welfare for Veterinary Journals published by the International Association of Veterinary Editors.


3.7 Clinical trials 

In accordance with the ICMJE requirements, ABC requires clinical trials to be registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment to be considered for publication. The trial registry name and URL and the registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.


3.8 Reporting guidelines 

Authors are encouraged to use the relevant research reporting guidelines for the study type provided by the EQUATOR Network. This will ensure that you provide enough information for editors, peer reviewers, and readers to understand how the research was performed and to judge whether the findings are likely to be reliable.

The key reporting guidelines are:

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs): CONSORT guidelines

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses: PRISMA guidelines and MOOSE guidelines

Observational studies in epidemiology: STROBE guidelines and MOOSE guidelines

Diagnostic accuracy studies: STARD guidelines

Quality improvement studies: SQUIRE guidelines.


4. Publishing policies

4.1 Publication ethics 

4.1.1 Plagiarism

ABC is powered by the iThenticate software, which is a plagiarism detection service that verifies the originality of the submitted content before publication. If plagiarism is identified, we will follow COPE guidelines.

Plagiarism includes (but is not limited to):

1) Directly copying text from other sources

2) Copying ideas, images, or data from other sources

3) Reusing text from your own previous publications

4) Using an idea from another source with slightly modified language

If plagiarism is detected during the peer review process, the manuscript may be rejected. If plagiarism is detected after publication, we reserve the right to issue a correction or retract the paper, as appropriate.


4.1.2 Prior publication

Any manuscript submitted to ABC must be original, and the manuscript, or substantial parts of it, must not be under consideration by any other journal.

In case there is the potential for overlap or duplication, we require that authors be transparent and declare any potentially overlapping publications on submission. Any overlapping publications should be cited. Any “in press” or unpublished manuscript cited, or relevant to the editor’s and reviewers’ assessment of the manuscript, should be made available if requested by the editor. ABC reserves the right to judge potentially overlapping or redundant publications on a case-by-case basis.

ABC endorses the policies of the ICMJE in relation to overlapping publications.


4.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement 

Before publishing a manuscript, ABC will require the author(s) as the rights holder(s) to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. ABC publishes manuscripts under Creative Commons licenses. The standard license for the journal is Creative Commons by Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC), which allows others to reuse the work without permission as long as the work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial.


4.2.1 Copyright statement

Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC): The work published in this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

The Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 provides the following summary

You are free to:

  • Share—copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.
  • Adapt—remix, transform, and build upon the material.

Under the following terms:

  • Attribution—you must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
  • No additional restrictions—you may not apply legal terms or technological measuresthat legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.

The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.


5. Preparing your manuscript

5.1 Word processing formats

We prefer Microsoft Word format (.DOC or .DOCX) for the submitted manuscripts, although PDF files are not accepted.


5.2 Artwork, figures, and other graphics

5.2.1 Figures

Figures should be limited to the number necessary for clarity and must not duplicate data given in tables or in the text. Submissions should have no more than a total of 8 figures and tables. Any number exceeding this should be designated as supplementary material for online access only. Figures must be suitable for high-quality reproduction and should be submitted in the desired final printed size so that the quality of the figure would not be affected after being printed. Figures should be no larger than 125 (height) × 180 (width) mm (5 × 7 inches) and should be submitted as separate files. Figures should be saved in TIFF format at a resolution of at least 300 pixels per inch at the final printed size for color figures and photographs, and 1200 pixels per inch for black-and-white line drawings. Although some other formats can be converted into TIFF format by the publisher, the conversion may alter the tones, resolution, and contrast of the image. Therefore, PDF is not acceptable as a source file for figures and illustrations.


5.2.2 Videos

Authors can submit videos and computer-generated graphics as well as a slide presentation if they think it is a part of their manuscript. The videos will be refereed as well, and the editors and reviewers may suggest changes. It is essential that the patient be not identifiable in the video unless he or she has provided written permission.

The length of each video clip or computer graphic should not exceed 40 MB. The authors can submit up to 3 videos or computer graphics. A concise legend for each video must be included in the manuscript. Only the videos which are compatible with Windows Media Player and submitted in MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 (.mpg) or QuickTime (.mov) format can be accepted.


5.2.3 Tables

Tables should be presented in a separate file. Provide a short, descriptive title for each table. Please make sure that each table is cited in the text and is numbered using arabic numerals. For tables adopted from previously published works, indicate the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption. Asterisks (*) for significance values and other statistical points should be included under the table.


5.2.4 Figure and video legends

Each figure should have a concise caption (legend) describing accurately what the figure depicts. Figure legends should be mentioned at the end of the manuscript file and not in the figure file. Figure legends should begin with the term Fig. in boldface, followed by the figure number also in boldface (e.g., Fig. 1).


5.3 Reference style

ABC follows the Vancouver reference style. Please review the guidelines on AMA to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the AMA output file here.

The accuracy of reference details is the responsibility of the authors.

Personal communications, unpublished observations, and submitted manuscripts are not acceptable references.

In the main text, references should be cited consecutively by superscript arabic numerals. The reference list should be organized in numerical order according to the order of appearing in the text.

Examples of acceptable reference formats are as follow:

  1. Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK. Diseases of the Breast. 5thed. china: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2014.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

  1. Hirshaut Y, Pressman P, Brody J. Breast Cancer: The Complete Guide: 5thEdition: Random House Publishing Group; 2009. Chapter 11: Hormone therapy and chemotherapy;p. 186-234.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book which has been written by authors in a book edited by others:

  1. Newman LA, Bensenhaver JM, eds. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ and Microinvasive/Borderline Breast Cancer. In: Kanumuri P, Chapgar BA. Epidemiology of Ductal Carcinoma In situ. 4th ed. Springer. New York; 2015, p. 1-12.

If there are 7 or more authors, list the first 6 ones and then insert "et al."


5.4 English language editing services

ABC offers language editing services to assist authors with the preparation of their manuscripts. These services are offered by third parties and will be available at a charge; however, authors publishing with ABC will qualify for a 50% discount. The cost of the language editing for each manuscript of the journal will differ from 50 to 150 Canadian dollars (CAD) depending on the word count of the article.


5.5 DOI Number

All the published manuscripts will be assigned a digital object identifier (DOI) (Crossref) as soon as the article is accepted and the processing of the article is finished. This unique identifier of the published articles enables identifying and citing articles published online without the volume or issue information (for more information, please refer to www.doi.org). 


6. Submitting your manuscript

6.1 How to submit your manuscript

Manuscripts should be submitted and tracked to the final decision at www.archbreastcancer.com. Manuscripts that do not comply with the instructions for authors will not be sent for external review.

ABC considers the following types of articles for publication: original research articles, reviews, letters, clinical experiences, case reports, case series, and short communication.


6.2 Cover letter, title page, keywords, and abstracts

Please supply a title, short title, an abstract, and keywords to accompany your article. The title, keywords, and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article online through online search engines such as Google.


6.2.1 Cover letter

Manuscripts should be submitted with a letter covering the below-mentioned issues:

- A summary explanation of the importance of the manuscript.

- The points that will be added to the literature by publishing the manuscript.

- Certifying that all coauthors have read and approved the final draft of the manuscript submitted to ABC.


6.2.2 Title page

The title page should include:

- The full title

- Complete name, the highest academic degree(s), and the affiliation of each author, along with their email addresses;

- Corresponding author’s name should be followed by an asterisk;

- Mailing address, phone/fax number, and email for correspondence;

- A running title of no more than 20 characters;

- The word count for the abstract and main body of the manuscript.


6.2.3 Abstract

- All abstracts may not exceed 250 words;

- Do not cite references in the abstract;

- The abstract should be self-explanatory without reference to the main text;

- Limit the use of acronyms and abbreviations;

- The structure of the abstract includes Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions.


6.2.4 Keywords

- Provide 3 to 5 keywords for indexing purposes. Keywords found in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus are preferable (see www.nlm.nih.gov).


6.3 Information required for completing your submission

You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all coauthors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears in your manuscript. The affiliation listed on the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).


6.4 Permissions

Authors who include any illustrations, figures, tables, or passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to provide evidence that permission from the copyright owner(s) for such reproduction within both the print and online formats has been granted. Any material received with submitted manuscripts without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.


7. On acceptance and publication

If your paper is accepted for publication after peer review, the author(s) will be required to sign the Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Once your manuscript files have been checked for ABC production, the corresponding author will need to pay the article processing charge (APC) via a payment link.


7.1 ABC production

The journal production editor will keep you posted about your article’s progress throughout the production process. The corresponding author will receive proofs in PDF format and should return them immediately. Authors are required to check their proofs carefully to verify the correctness and accuracy of any information, including names, affiliations, sequence, and contact details, and funding and conflict of interest statements. Please note that any changes to the author list at this stage require all authors to complete and sign a form permitting the change.


7.2 Online publication

Online open access publishing offers many benefits, one of them being higher publishing speed. With no limit on the number of pages, your paper will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number once it completes the production process. At this time, it will be completely free to view and download for all.


7.3 Application for waiver

Authors may submit along with their manuscript a waiver request letter, in which they explain the reasons for their request. The journal’s office will process the request and respond in 4 business days. The request can be accepted completely or partially or refused. If the waiver request is accepted completely, the journal will proceed with the peer review processing of the submitted manuscript; otherwise, the author will be informed about the decision. As soon as the corresponding author agrees, the peer review will start.

The journal’s policy is to offer waivers or considerable discounts to most of the requests submitted from the limited-resource countries.

***Since ABC waived the article processing charge (APC) for the articles submitted until July 2020, there is no need to apply for a waiver this year.

7.4 Article processing charge (APC) 

The publication fee payable by the corresponding author covers a part of processing and publication charges of the manuscripts.

Charges are made based on the final page count of the accepted and edited article and vary depending on the number of printed pages. One printed page of pure text contains approximately 6000 characters; however, the final page count will also depend on the number and size of tables and figures. Articles under 3 pages do not incur a charge. Articles exceeding three pages are charged to the author at 500 CAD. To request for waiver, please see section 7.3.

***According to the decision of the editorial office, for the manuscripts submitted until July 2020, APC is waived.

7.5 Complaints procedure

The best way to reach us is by email. Complaints should ideally be made to the person the complainant is already in contact with over the matter being complained about. If that is not appropriate, please email our managing editor Dr. Mojgan Karbakhsh (mkarbakhsh@sina.tums.ac.ir).

Whenever possible, complaints will be dealt with by the relevant member of the editorial staff. If that person cannot deal with the complaint, he or she will refer it to our managing editor.

All complaints will be addressed within three working days. If possible, a full response will be made within four weeks.

If the complainant is not happy with the resolution, he or she may ask for the complaint to be escalated to the ABC editor in chief, Dr Ahmad Kaviani.


8. Further information

Any correspondence, queries, or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be addressed to ABC editor in chief, Dr Ahmad Kaviani (akaviani@archbreastcancer.com).