Validity of the Snyder's Adult Hope Scale (AHS) among Iranian Women with Breast Cancer

Yaghoob Vakili (1), Nikzad Ghanbari (2), Roghieh Nooripour (3), Mohammad Ali Mansournia (4), Hossein Ilanloo (5), Joshua J. Matacotta (6)
(1) Golestan Research Center of Psychiatry, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran, Iran, Islamic Republic of,
(2) Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University (SBU), Tehran, Iran, Iran, Islamic Republic of,
(3) Department of Counseling, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran, Iran, Islamic Republic of,
(4) Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Iran, Islamic Republic of,
(5) Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran , Iran, Islamic Republic of,
(6) College of Health Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, California, USA , United States


Background: Cancer has experienced an alarming growth in the last two decades and is considered a pressing health problem of modern life. This study investigated the validity of Snyder's Adult Hope Scale (AHS) in Iranian women with breast cancer.
Methods: 177 Iranian women with breast cancer were randomly selected for the present descriptive cross-sectional study. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and the Persian version of Snyder's Adult Hope Scale (AHS), the DASS-21. The psychometric properties of the AHS were examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and discriminant validity using analysis of the DASS-21.
Results: The results of CFA showed that the two-factor provided an excellent fit to the data. All items of the loadings delivered a significant factor.These results are acceptable because the factor loadings of all items were significant, and the factor load of all items other than item 1 is higher than 0.5, indicating the model's optimal fit. There was a significant negative relationship between AHS and DASS-21 scores for anxiety (r=-0.49), depression (r=-0.51), and stress (r=-0.47), indicating acceptable divergent validity.
Conclusion: Snyder's Adult Hope Scale (AHS) can be used as a valid and appropriate tool in clinical and educational settings to assess the hope of women with breast cancer and prepare treatment and prevention programs.

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Yaghoob Vakili
Nikzad Ghanbari
Roghieh Nooripour (Primary Contact)
Mohammad Ali Mansournia
Hossein Ilanloo
Joshua J. Matacotta
Vakili Y, Ghanbari N, Nooripour R, Mansournia MA, Ilanloo H, J. Matacotta J. Validity of the Snyder’s Adult Hope Scale (AHS) among Iranian Women with Breast Cancer. Arch Breast Cancer [Internet]. 2022 Jan. 23 [cited 2024 Apr. 23];9(1):96-103. Available from:

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