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Hope Scale, Breast Cancer, Iran, Validity, Reliability
Background: Cancer has experienced an alarming growth in the last two decades and is considered a pressing health problem of modern life. This study investigated the validity of Snyder's Adult Hope Scale (AHS) in Iranian women with breast cancer.
Methods: 177 Iranian women with breast cancer were randomly selected for the present descriptive cross-sectional study. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and the Persian version of Snyder's Adult Hope Scale (AHS), the DASS-21. The psychometric properties of the AHS were examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and discriminant validity using analysis of the DASS-21.
Results: The results of CFA showed that the two-factor provided an excellent fit to the data. All items of the loadings delivered a significant factor.These results are acceptable because the factor loadings of all items were significant, and the factor load of all items other than item 1 is higher than 0.5, indicating the model's optimal fit. There was a significant negative relationship between AHS and DASS-21 scores for anxiety (r=-0.49), depression (r=-0.51), and stress (r=-0.47), indicating acceptable divergent validity.
Conclusion: Snyder's Adult Hope Scale (AHS) can be used as a valid and appropriate tool in clinical and educational settings to assess the hope of women with breast cancer and prepare treatment and prevention programs.
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