Main Article Content
Breast cancer, existential well-being, death anxiety, mental well-being, religious well-being
Background: Considering the role of psychological components in the life of patients with cancer, the present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between mental, existential, and religious well-being and death anxiety in women with breast cancer.
Methods: In this descriptive, correlational study, the statistical population included all women with breast cancer referred to Shahid Rahimi Hospital in Khorramabad in 2017. A sample of 100 patients was selected through convenience sampling and data were collected using Templer’s Death Anxiety Scale, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, and the Spiritual Well-being Scale. For the purpose of data analysis, mean, standard deviation, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression were applied using SPSS 22.
Results: The study findings indicated a significant, negative correlation between mental well-being, existential well-being, and religious well-being and death anxiety in patients with breast cancer (? = 0.05).
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, mental, existential, and religious well-being are important contributors to mental health and quality of life of patients with cancer. Therefore, enhancing these components in cancer patients can be introduced as a complementary treatment along with medical treatments in order to improve psychological problems in clinical settings.
2. Mostafazadeh F, Rostamnejad, M. Spirituality and Breast Cancer. Iranian Journal of Women and Midwifery. 2010;5(3):85-90.
3. Monteiro S, Torres A, Morgadinho R, Pereira A. Psychosocial outcomes in young adults with cancer: emotional distress, quality of life and personal growth. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2013;27(6):299-305.
4. Ryff CD, Singer BH, Dienberg Love G. Positive health: connecting well-being with biology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2004;359(1449):1383-94.
5. Daniels J, Kissane DW. Psychosocial interventions for cancer patients. Curr Opin Oncol. 2008;20(4):367-71.
6. Li HC, Lopez V, Joyce Chung OK, Ho KY, Chiu SY. The impact of cancer on the physical, psychological and social well-being of childhood cancer survivors. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2013;17(2):214-9.
7. Casas F, Alsinet C, Rosich M, Huebner ES, Laughlin JE. Cross-cultural investigation of the Multidimensional Students Life Satisfaction Scale with Spanish adolescents. Third Conference of the International Society for Quality of Life Studies; Girona, Spain2001.
8. Vaghela KJ. Effect of Psychological well-being, Death Anxiety and Depression On curable & Incurable Disease Patients. The International Journal of Indian Psychology. 2015;2(4):84-9.
9. Rice HJ. The Relationship Between Humor and Death Anxiety. National Undergraduate Research Clearinghouse. 2000.
10. Koole SL, Greenberg J, Pyszczynski T. Introducing Science to the Psychology of the Soul: Experimental Existential Psychology. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2006;15(5):212-6.
11. Vail KE, Rothschild ZK, Weise DR, Solomon S, Pyszczynski T, Greenberg J. A terror management analysis of the psychological functions of religion. Personality and Social Psychology Review. 2010;14(1):84-94.
12. Allahbakhshian M, Jaffarpour M, Parvizy S, Haghani H. A Survey on relationship between spiritual wellbeing and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2010;12(3):29-33.
13. Seyyedfatemi N, Rezaie M, Givari A, Hosseini F. Prayer and spiritual Well-being in cancer patients. Journal Payesh. 2007;5(4):295-304.
14. McCoubrie RC, Davies AN. Is there a correlation between spirituality and anxiety and depression in patients with advanced cancer? Supportive Care in Cancer. 2006;14(4):379.
15. Hall P, Hamilton P, Hulme C, Meads D, Jones H, Newsham A, et al. Costs of cancer care for use in economic evaluation: a UK analysis of patient-level routine health system data. British journal of cancer. 2015;112(5):948.
16. McMahon RL. The Impact of Spirituality, Social Support, and Defensive/adaptive Coping on Death Anxiety at End of Life: Catholic University of America; 2004.
17. Kates IC. Awakening creativity and spiritual intelligence: the soul work of holistic educators2003.
18. Templer DI. The construction and validation of a death anxiety scale. The Journal of general psychology. 1970;82(2):165-77.
19. Tennant R, Hiller L, Fishwick R, Platt S, Joseph S, Weich S, et al. The Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale (WEMWBS): development and UK validation. Health and Quality of life Outcomes. 2007;5(1):63.
20. Paloutzian RF, Ellison CW. Loneliness, spiritual well-being and the quality of life. Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy. 1982:224-37.
21. Rajabi G, Bohrani M. Factorial analysis of death anxiety scale. Psychol J. 2001;4(20):33l-344.
22. Clarke A, Putz R, Friede T, Ashdown J, Adi Y, Martin S, et al. Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) acceptability and validation in English and Scottish secondary school students (The WAVES Project) Glasgow. NHS Health Scotland. 2010.
23. Ghaem H, Haghighi AB, Jafari P, Nikseresht A. Validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life questionnaire. Neurology India. 2007;55(4):369.
24. Dehshir G, Sohrabi F, Jafari E, Najafi M. Psychometric properties of the scale of spiritual well-being among students. J Psych Stud. 2007;15(3):129-50.
25. Larson CAD. Spiritual, psychosocial, and physical correlates of well-being across the breast cancer experience: University of Arizona.; 2004.
26. Puchalski CM, Vitillo R, Hull SK, Reller N. Improving the spiritual dimension of whole person care: reaching national and international consensus. J Palliat Med. 2014;17(6):642-56.
27. Lin HR, Bauer-Wu SM. Psycho-spiritual well-being in patients with advanced cancer: an integrative review of the literature. J Adv Nurs. 2003;44(1):69-80.
28. Chuengsatiansup K. Spirituality and health: an initial proposal to incorporate spiritual health in health impact assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. 2003;23(1):3-15.
29. Moradi-Joo M, Babazadeh T, Honarvar Z, Mohabat-Bahar S, Rahmati-Najarkolaei F, Haghighi M. The relationship between spiritual health and public health aspects among patients with breast cancer. Journal of Research on Religion & Health. 2017;3(3):80-91.
30. Richards PS. Religious devoutness in college students: Relations with emotional adjustment and psychological separation from parents. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 1991;38(2):189.
31. Tsevat J. Spirituality/religion and quality of life in patients with HIV/AIDS. Journal of general internal medicine. 2006;21:S1-S2.
32. Baljani E, Khashabi J, Amanpour E, Azimi N. Relationship between spiritual well-being, religion, and hope among patients with cancer. Journal of hayat. 2011;17(3):27-37.
33. Hasson-Ohayon I, Braun M, Galinsky D, Baider L. Religiosity and hope: a path for women coping with a diagnosis of breast cancer. Psychosomatics. 2009;50(5):525-33.
34. Mickley J, Soeken K. Religiousness and hope in Hispanic- and Anglo-American women with breast cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1993;20(8):1171-7.
35. Yalç?n ?, Malkoç A. The relationship between meaning in life and subjective well-being: Forgiveness and hope as mediators. Journal of Happiness Studies. 2015;16(4):915-29.
36. Fehring RJ, Miller JF, Shaw C. Spiritual well-being, religiosity, hope, depression, and other mood states in elderly people coping with cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1997;24(4):663-71.
37. Aliakbari dehkordi M, Oraki M, Irani Z, Kiarad S. The examination of relationship between religious orientation with self alienation depression and death anxiety in students of payame-no?r university. Islamic Uni J. 2012(49):165-80.
38. Kazemi M. Psychology of Death. Keihan Farhangi. 2003;19(191):61-5.
39. Shapiro SL, Lopez AM, Schwartz GE, Bootzin R, Figueredo AJ, Braden CJ, et al. Quality of life and breast cancer: relationship to psychosocial variables. Journal of clinical psychology. 2001;57(4):501-19.
40. Mitchell AJ, Ferguson DW, Gill J, Paul J, Symonds P. Depression and anxiety in long-term cancer survivors compared with spouses and healthy controls: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(8):721-32.
41. Noguchi W, Morita S, Ohno T, Aihara O, Tsujii H, Shimozuma K, et al. Spiritual needs in cancer patients and spiritual care based on logotherapy. Support Care Cancer. 2006;14(1):65-70.
42. Shinn EH, Taylor CLC, Kilgore K, Valentine A, Bodurka DC, Kavanagh J, et al. Associations with worry about dying and hopelessness in ambulatory ovarian cancer patients. Palliative & supportive care. 2009;7(3):299-306.
43. Midtgaard J, RØrth M, Stelter R, Tveterås A, Andersen C, Quist M, et al. The impact of a multidimensional exercise program on self-reported anxiety and depression in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: a phase II study. Palliative & supportive care. 2005;3(3):197-208.
44. Schmer CE. The effect of a cancer diagnosis on hope and resilience: a correlational, longitudinal study: University of Missouri-Kansas City; 2010.