Predicting Breast Self-Examination Practices among Catholic Nuns in Tanzania's Lake Zone: A Health Belief Model Approach BSE among catholic nuns

Sr. Gotfrida Marandu (1), Kija Malale (2), Rose Lasseir (3), Paul Alikado Sabuni (4), Peter Rambau (5)
(1) a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:49:"Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences";}, Tanzania, United Republic of,
(2) a. Archbishop Anthony Mayala School of Nursing, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, Mwanza, Tanzania, Tanzania, United Republic of,
(3) a. Archbishop Anthony Mayala School of Nursing, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, Mwanza, Tanzania, Tanzania, United Republic of,
(4) b. Public health Consultant, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Mwanza, Tanzania, Tanzania, United Republic of,
(5) c. Department of Pathology, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences Bugando, Mwanza, Tanzania, Tanzania, United Republic of

Abstract

Background: Early breast cancer detection is crucial for improving breast cancer outcomes. Breast Self-Examination (BSE) is a valuable tool that can empower Catholic nuns to take charge of their health, particularly in constrained resource countries like Tanzania. This study aims to use the Health Belief Model (HBM) to predict SBE practices among Catholic nuns in Tanzania's Lake Zone.


Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design whereby a total of 385 catholic nuns were enrolled to participate in the study. The Health Beliefs Model (HBM) guided the study of the interrelated variables related to self-breast examination. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using Stata version 18.0. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to test for association at a 5% significant level.


Results: The prevalence of non-performance self-breast examination was 64.2% (95% CI, 59.1%-69.0%). The multivariate logistic regression revealed that nuns who are in the non-health field were more likely not to perform self-breast cancer examination with an AOR of 1.67 (95% CI, 1.02-2.73, p=0.041). Likewise, nuns with high barrier were more likely not to perform self-breast cancer examination with an AOR of 1.88 (95% CI, 1.17-3.02, p=0.009), also, an AOR of 2.25 (95% CI, 1.39-3.65, p=0.001) for nuns with low self-efficacy.


Conclusion: The study revealed that the HBM constructs can predict the SBE behavior of catholic nuns. In addition, educational health interventions are highly recommended to enhance SBE practice among this special group.

Full text article

Generated from XML file

References

Santosh T, Borisovna KA. COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF BREAST HEALTH AND CANCER AWARENESS UNDERSTANDING SYMPTOM RECOGNITION AND BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION AMONG WOMEN IN INDIA, MALAYSIA, AND AFRICA. Special Journal of the Medical Academy and other Life Sciences. 2024;2(3). doi:10.58676/sjmas.v2i3.57.

Arnold M, Morgan E, Rumgay H, Mafra A, Singh D, Laversanne M, et al. Current and future burden of breast cancer: Global statistics for 2020 and 2040. The Breast. 2022;66:15-23. doi:10.1016/j.breast.2022.08.010.

Chao CA, Huang L, Visvanathan K, Mwakatobe K, Masalu N, Rositch AF. Understanding women’s perspectives on breast cancer is essential for cancer control: knowledge, risk awareness, and care-seeking in Mwanza, Tanzania. BMC Public Health. 2020;20:1-11. doi:10.1186/s12889-020-09010-y.

Al-Sharbatti SS, Shaikh RB, Mathew E, Al-Biate MAS. Breast self examination practice and breast cancer risk perception among female university students in Ajman. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2013;14(8):4919-23. doi:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4919.

Secginli S, Nahcivan NO. Factors associated with breast cancer screening behaviours in a sample of Turkish women: a questionnaire survey. International journal of nursing studies. 2006;43(2):161-71. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2005.02.004.

Smith RA, Oeffinger KC. The importance of cancer screening. Medical Clinics. 2020;104(6):919-38. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2020.08.008.

Chalmers KI, Luker KA. Breast self‐care practices in women with primary relatives with breast cancer. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1996;23(6):1212-20. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1996.12820.x.

Fraumeni Jr JF, Lloyd JW, Smith EM, Wagoner JK. Cancer mortality among nuns: role of marital status in etiology of neoplastic disease in women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1969;42(3):455-68. doi:10.1093/jnci/42.3.455.

Thiel L. Breast health of US women religious (nuns). The Breast Journal. 2008;14(6):581-3. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4741.2008.00651.x.

Britt K, Short R. The plight of nuns: hazards of nulliparity. The Lancet. 2012;379(9834):2322-3. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61746-7.

Basaza RK, Kaddu J, Otieno E, Mirembe F. Determinants of Breast Cancer Screening Among Reverend Sisters in Kampala Archdiocese, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study: Determinants of Breast Cancer Screening. Archives of Breast Cancer. 2022:221-30. doi:10.32768/abc.202292221-230.

Remennick L. The challenge of early breast cancer detection among immigrant and minority women in multicultural societies. The breast journal. 2006;12:S103-S10. doi:10.1111/j.1075-122X.2006.00204.x.

Naz MSG, Simbar M, Fakari FR, Ghasemi V. Effects of model-based interventions on breast cancer screening behavior of women: a systematic review. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 2018;19(8):2031. doi:10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.8.2031.

Dewi TK, Massar K, Ruiter RA, Leonardi T. Determinants of breast self-examination practice among women in Surabaya, Indonesia: an application of the health belief model. BMC public health. 2019;19(1):1-8. doi:10.1186/s12889-019-7951-2.

Nahcivan NO, Secginli S, editors. Health beliefs related to breast self-examination in a sample of Turkish women. Oncology nursing forum; 2007: Oncology Nursing Society. doi:10.1188/07.ONF.425-432.

Acharya A, Sounderajah V, Ashrafian H, Darzi A, Judah G. A systematic review of interventions to improve breast cancer screening health behaviours. Preventive Medicine. 2021;153:106828. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106828.

Nanjundeswaraswamy T, Divakar S. Determination of sample size and sampling methods in applied research. Proceedings on engineering sciences. 2021;3(1):25-32.

Kashyap D, Pal D, Sharma R, Garg VK, Goel N, Koundal D, et al. [Retracted] Global Increase in Breast Cancer Incidence: Risk Factors and Preventive Measures. BioMed research international. 2022;2022(1):9605439.

MASOUDI YL, Dashtbozorgi B, Gheibizadeh M, SAKI MA, Moradi M. Applying the health belief model in predicting breast cancer screening behavior of women. 2015. doi:10.17795/jjcdc-30234.

Tapera R, Senabye PK, Mhaka-Mutepfa M, January J, Apau SG. The use of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in determining the factors associated with breast cancer screening among female students in Botswana. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education. 2019;57(4):203-16.

Mohamed NC, Moey S-F, Lim B-C. Validity and reliability of health belief model questionnaire for promoting breast self-examination and screening mammogram for early cancer detection. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 2019;20(9):2865. doi: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.9.2865.

Asare M, Sharma M. Establishing validity and reliability of a health belief model and acculturation scale for measuring safe-sex and sexual communication behaviors among African immigrants for protecting against HIV/AIDS. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies. 2014;12(3):191-209. doi:10.1080/15562948.2013.826842.

Suriyong P, Jiraniramai S, Wongpakaran N, Pinyopornpanish K, Angkurawaranon C, Jiraporncharoen W, et al., editors. Translation, Adaptation, and Validation of the Modified Thai Version of Champion’s Health Belief Model Scale (MT-CHBMS). Healthcare; 2022: MDPI. doi:10.3390/healthcare11010128.

Abdelaziz AH, Shawki MA, Shaaban AM, Albarouki SK, Rachid AM, Alsalhani OM, et al. Breast cancer awareness among Egyptian women and the impact of caring for patients with breast cancer on family caregivers’ knowledge and behaviour. Research in Oncology. 2021;17(1):1-8. doi: 10.21608/resoncol.2020.42340.1114.

Bawazir A, Bashateh N, Jradi H, Breik AB. Breast cancer screening awareness and practices among women attending primary health care centers in the Ghail Bawazir District of Yemen. Clinical breast cancer. 2019;19(1):e20-e9. doi:10.1016/j.clbc.2018.09.005.

Hing JJX, Lee WP, Chua YNS, Tan PT, Mok CW, Sudhakar SS, et al. Impact of health talks on knowledge, attitudes and perception of breast cancer screening and treatment amongst healthcare staff by a breast surgical unit in a public healthcare institution: A cross-sectional study. BMC Women's Health. 2021;21(1):308. doi:10.1186/s12905-021-01424-z.

Nde FP, Assob JCN, Kwenti TE, Njunda AL, Tainenbe TRG. Knowledge, attitude and practice of breast self-examination among female undergraduate students in the University of Buea. BMC research notes. 2015;8:1-6. doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1004-4.

Gwarzo U, Sabitu K, Idris S. Knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among female undergraduate students. Annals of African medicine. 2009;8(1).

Assfa Mossa K. Perceptions and knowledge of breast cancer and breast self-examination among young adult women in southwest Ethiopia: Application of the health belief model. Plos one. 2022;17(9):e0274935. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0274935.

Allen JD, Leyva B, Torres MI, Ospino H, Tom L, Rustan S, et al. Religious beliefs and cancer screening behaviors among Catholic Latinos: Implications for faith-based interventions. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved. 2014;25(2):503. doi:10.1353/hpu.2014.0080.

Charkazi A, Samimi A, Razzaghi K, Kouchaki GM, Moodi M, Meirkarimi K, et al. Adherence to recommended breast cancer screening in Iranian Turkmen women: the role of knowledge and beliefs. International Scholarly Research Notices. 2013;2013. doi:10.5402/2013/581027.

El-Hosary EAS. Health Belief Model as a predictor of Self-Breast Examination Behaviors among Female Shaqra University Students.

Sharifikia I, Rohani C, Estebsari F, Matbouei M, Salmani F, Hossein-Nejad A. Health belief model-based intervention on women's knowledge and perceived beliefs about warning signs of cancer. Asia-Pacific journal of oncology nursing. 2019;6(4):431-9. doi:10.4103/apjon.apjon_32_19.

Birhane N, Mamo A, Girma E, Asfaw S. Predictors of breast self-examination among female teachers in Ethiopia using health belief model. Archives of Public Health. 2015;73:1-7. doi:10.1186/s13690-015-0087-7.

Tewelde B, Tamire M, Kaba M. Breast self-examination practice and predictors among female secondary school teachers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: using the health belief model. BMC Women's Health. 2022;22(1):317. doi:10.1186/s12905-022-01904-w.

Jirojwong S, MacLennan R. Health beliefs, perceived self‐efficacy, and breast self‐examination among Thai migrants in Brisbane. Journal of advanced nursing. 2003;41(3):241-9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02552.x.

Lee Champion V. Use of the health belief model in determining frequency of breast self‐examination. Research in Nursing & Health. 1985;8(4):373-9. doi:10.1002/nur.4770080410.

Joseph AJ, Mbuthia G, Kawira R. Prevalence and associated factors of breast cancer screening among nuns in the Catholic Archdiocese of Nairobi. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2023;44. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2023.44.117.38005.

Kissal A, Vural B, Ersin F, Solmaz T. The effect of women’s breast cancer fear and social support perceptions on the process of participating in screening. Global Health Promotion. 2018;25(3):52-9. doi:10.1177/1757975916677174.

Petro‐Nustus W, Mikhail BI. Factors associated with breast self‐examination among Jordanian women. Public Health Nursing. 2002;19(4):263-71. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1446.2002.19406.x.

Taha H, Al-Qutob R, Nyström L, Wahlström R, Berggren V. “Voices of Fear and Safety” Women’s ambivalence towards breast cancer and breast health: a qualitative study from Jordan. BMC women's health. 2012;12:1-10. doi:10.1186/1472-6874-12-21.

Saldaña-Téllez M, Meneses-Navarro S, Cano-Garduño L, Unger-Saldaña K. Barriers and facilitators for breast cancer early diagnosis in an indigenous community in Mexico: voices of otomí women. BMC Women's Health. 2024;24(1):33. doi:10.1186/s12905-023-02875-2.

Noman S, Shahar HK, Abdul Rahman H, Ismail S, Abdulwahid Al-Jaberi M, Azzani M. The effectiveness of educational interventions on breast cancer screening uptake, knowledge, and beliefs among women: a systematic review. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021;18(1):263. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18010263

Mohamed HAE-A, Ibrahim YM, Lamadah SM, Hassan M, El-Magd A. Application of the health belief model for breast cancer screening and implementation of breast self-examination educational program for female students of selected medical and non-medical faculties at Umm al Qura University. Life Science Journal. 2016;13(5):21-33. doi:10.7537/marslsj13051603.

Authors

Sr. Gotfrida Marandu
godfridamarandu@gmail.com (Primary Contact)
Kija Malale
Rose Lasseir
Paul Alikado Sabuni
Peter Rambau
1.
Marandu SG, Malale K, Lasseir R, Sabuni PA, Rambau P. Predicting Breast Self-Examination Practices among Catholic Nuns in Tanzania’s Lake Zone: A Health Belief Model Approach: BSE among catholic nuns. Arch Breast Cancer [Internet]. [cited 2024 Jul. 14];11(3). Available from: https://www.archbreastcancer.com/index.php/abc/article/view/908

Article Details