Predicting Breast Self-Examination Practices among Catholic Nuns in Tanzania's Lake Zone: A Health Belief Model Approach BSE among catholic nuns

Sr. Gotfrida Marandu (1), Kija Malale (2), Rose Lasseir (3), Paul Alikado Sabuni (4), Peter Rambau (5)
(1) a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:49:"Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences";}, Tanzania, United Republic of,
(2) a. Archbishop Anthony Mayala School of Nursing, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, Mwanza, Tanzania, Tanzania, United Republic of,
(3) a. Archbishop Anthony Mayala School of Nursing, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, Mwanza, Tanzania, Tanzania, United Republic of,
(4) b. Public health Consultant, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Mwanza, Tanzania, Tanzania, United Republic of,
(5) c. Department of Pathology, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences Bugando, Mwanza, Tanzania, Tanzania, United Republic of


Background: Early breast cancer detection is crucial for improving breast cancer outcomes. Breast Self-Examination (BSE) is a valuable tool that can empower Catholic nuns to take charge of their health, particularly in constrained resource countries like Tanzania. This study aims to use the Health Belief Model (HBM) to predict SBE practices among Catholic nuns in Tanzania's Lake Zone.

Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design whereby a total of 385 catholic nuns were enrolled to participate in the study. The Health Beliefs Model (HBM) guided the study of the interrelated variables related to self-breast examination. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using Stata version 18.0. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to test for association at a 5% significant level.

Results: The prevalence of non-performance self-breast examination was 64.2% (95% CI, 59.1%-69.0%). The multivariate logistic regression revealed that nuns who are in the non-health field were more likely not to perform self-breast cancer examination with an AOR of 1.67 (95% CI, 1.02-2.73, p=0.041). Likewise, nuns with high barrier were more likely not to perform self-breast cancer examination with an AOR of 1.88 (95% CI, 1.17-3.02, p=0.009), also, an AOR of 2.25 (95% CI, 1.39-3.65, p=0.001) for nuns with low self-efficacy.

Conclusion: The study revealed that the HBM constructs can predict the SBE behavior of catholic nuns. In addition, educational health interventions are highly recommended to enhance SBE practice among this special group.

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Sr. Gotfrida Marandu (Primary Contact)
Kija Malale
Rose Lasseir
Paul Alikado Sabuni
Peter Rambau
Marandu SG, Malale K, Lasseir R, Sabuni PA, Rambau P. Predicting Breast Self-Examination Practices among Catholic Nuns in Tanzania’s Lake Zone: A Health Belief Model Approach: BSE among catholic nuns. Arch Breast Cancer [Internet]. [cited 2024 Jul. 14];11(3). Available from:

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