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Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants; ASIA; silicone breast implants; mammoplasty; complications related to silicone breast implants; pleuritis; pericarditis; breast implants and autoimmunity.
Background: Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome (ASIA) constitutes a set of related immune mediated diseases that share a common clinical picture and a history of a previous exposure to an adjuvant agent. From a clinical standpoint, patients present with none specific manifestations such as myalgia, arthralgia, chronic fatigue and dry mouth as well as neurological manifestations such as cognitive disturbances, memory loss and neurologic disabilities. .
Case presentation: A previously healthy 25-year-old patient who underwent breast augmentation 3 years ago, with an asymptomatic rupture of the silicone breast implant, presented with three major criteria of ASIA, and improved after bilateral implant removal. She also had pleuritis and pericarditis, rarely described in such disease. A literature review on complications related to breast implants, their questionable relationship to the onset of autoimmune pathologies, and basic aspects of the diagnosis and management of ASIA was carried out.
Conclusion: The silicone presented in breast implants should be considered as an adjuvant, with the potential to cause chronic stimulation to the immune system. This can lead to systemic manifestations that can be severe in patients genetically predisposed and potentially not reversible even after surgical removal of the implants. When facing patients with breast implants and systemic clinical symptoms, lymph node disorders, neurological manifestations, or serositis as in the case presented, without other defined etiology, the possibility of ASIA should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
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