Main Article Content
Breast cancer, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris L., Lavender x intermedia
Background: The essential oils of traditional medicinal plants, including Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris L., and Lavender x intermedia contain anticancer compounds such as lavandulyl acetate, rosmarinic acid and thymol. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer effects of the essential oils of R. officinalis, T. vulgaris L., and L. x intermedia on MCF-7 cells.
Methods: Essential oils were prepared from R. officinalis, T. vulgaris L., and L. x intermedia plants. Then, MCF-7 and Hu02 cells were treated with different concentrations of these essential oils for a given time. The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the cellular viability and cytotoxicity in response to treatment with different extract concentrations. The morphological changes were studied by Hoechst and propidium iodide staining. The results were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and Tukey test.
Results: All three essential oils inhibited the viability of the MCF-7 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. T. vulgaris L. was more potent against MCF-7 cells at 400 µg/ml concentration (IC50 = 48.01 ± 0.94), while R. officinalis was moderate at 800 µg/ml concentration (IC50 = 47.39±0.91) and the concentration for L. x intermedia was 400 µg/ml (IC50 = 47.39 ± 0.91).
Conclusion: R. officinalis, T. vulgaris L. and L. x intermedia show cytotoxic activity against breast cancer in vitro. T. vulgaris represents a potentially selective cytostatic factor and a safe target for future development of anticancer agents.
2. Vo AT, Millis RM. Epigenetics and breast cancers. Obstetrics and gynecology international. 2012;2012.
3. Pathy NB, Yip CH, Taib NA, Hartman M, Saxena N, Iau P, et al. Breast cancer in a multi-ethnic Asian setting: results from the Singapore–Malaysia hospital-based breast cancer registry. The Breast. 2011;20:S75-S80.
4. Alireza S, Mehdi N, Ali M, Alireza M, Reza M, Parkin D. Cancer occurrence in Iran in 2002, an international perspective. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention. 2005;6(3):359.
5. Rezaianzadeh A, Peacock J, Reidpath D, Talei A, Hosseini SV, Mehrabani D. Survival analysis of 1148 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Southern Iran. BMC cancer. 2009;9(1):168.
6. Harirchi I, Karbakhsh M, Kashefi A, Momtahen AJ. Breast cancer in Iran: results of a multi-center study. Asian pacific journal of cancer prevention. 2004;5(1):24-7.
7. Butt MS, Naz A, Sultan MT, Qayyum MMN. Anti-oncogenic perspectives of spices/herbs: A comprehensive review. EXCLI journal. 2013;12:1043.
8. Mans DR, Da Rocha AB, Schwartsmann G. Anti-cancer drug discovery and development in Brazil: targeted plant collection as a rational strategy to acquire candidate anti-cancer compounds. The oncologist. 2000;5(3):185-98.
9. Srivastava V, Negi AS, Kumar J, Gupta M, Khanuja SP. Plant-based anticancer molecules: a chemical and biological profile of some important leads. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 2005;13(21):5892-908.
10. Sylvestre M, Pichette A, Longtin A, Nagau F, Legault J. Essential oil analysis and anticancer activity of leaf essential oil of Croton flavens L. from Guadeloupe. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006;103(1):99-102.
11. Mimica-Dukic N, Bozin B, Sokovic M, Simin N. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Melissa officinalis L.(Lamiaceae) essential oil. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2004;52(9):2485-9.
12. Møller P, Wallin H, Knudsen LE. Oxidative stress associated with exercise, psychological stress and life-style factors. Chemico-biological interactions. 1996;102(1):17-36.
13. Kidwai M, Venktaramanan R, Mohan R, Sapra P. Cancer chemotherapy and heterocyclic compounds. Current medicinal chemistry. 2002;9(12):1209-28.
14. Hoffman EJ. Cancer and the search for selective biochemical inhibitors: CRC press; 2007.
15. Craig WJ. Health-promoting properties of common herbs. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 1999;70(3):491s-9s.
16. Katzung BG, Masters SB, Trevor AJ. Basic & clinical pharmacology. 2004.
17. Lixandru Ba-E, Drăcea N, Dragomirescu CC, Drăgulescu E, Coldea IL, Anton L, et al. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay. Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 2010;69(4):224-30.
18. Vigo E, Cepeda A, Perez‐Fernandez R, Gualillo O. In vitro antiinflammatory effect of Eucalyptus globulus and Thymus vulgaris: nitric oxide inhibition in J774A. 1 murine macrophages. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2004;56(2):257-63.
19. Kazemi M. Phytochemical Composition of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2015;18(3):751-3.
20. Hotta M, Nakata R, Katsukawa M, Hori K, Takahashi S, Inoue H. Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPARα and γ and suppresses COX-2 expression. Journal of lipid research. 2010;51(1):132-9.
21. Ündeğer Ü, Başaran A, Degen G, Başaran N. Antioxidant activities of major thyme ingredients and lack of (oxidative) DNA damage in V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells at low levels of carvacrol and thymol. Food and chemical toxicology. 2009;47(8):2037-43.
22. Gotfredsen E. The incomplete reference-guide to herbal medicine. Liber herbarium< http://www liberherbarum com/Pn0541 HTM>[Consulta: 23 febrero 2009]. 2013.
23. Fakhari AR, Salehi P, Heydari R, Ebrahimi SN, Haddad PR. Hydrodistillation-headspace solvent microextraction, a new method for analysis of the essential oil components of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Journal of Chromatography A. 2005;1098(1-2):14-8.
24. Ikeda Y, Murakami A, Ohigashi H. Ursolic acid: An anti‐and pro‐inflammatory triterpenoid. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2008;52(1):26-42.
25. Takeda H, Tsuji M, Inazu M, Egashira T, Matsumiya T. Rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid produce antidepressive-like effect in the forced swimming test in mice. European journal of pharmacology. 2002;449(3):261-7.
26. Huang S-s, Zheng R-l. Rosmarinic acid inhibits angiogenesis and its mechanism of action in vitro. Cancer letters. 2006;239(2):271-80.
27. Osakabe N, Yasuda A, Natsume M, Sanbongi C, Kato Y, Osawa T, et al. Rosmarinic acid, a major polyphenolic component of Perilla frutescens, reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitized mice. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2002;33(6):798-806.
28. Dubois M, Bailly F, Mbemba G, Mouscadet J-F, Debyser Z, Witvrouw M, et al. Reaction of rosmarinic acid with nitrite ions in acidic conditions: discovery of nitro-and dinitrorosmarinic acids as new anti-HIV-1 agents. Journal of medicinal chemistry. 2008;51(8):2575-9.
29. Osakabe N, Yasuda A, Natsume M, Yoshikawa T. Rosmarinic acid inhibits epidermal inflammatory responses: anticarcinogenic effect of Perilla frutescens extract in the murine two-stage skin model. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25(4):549-57.
30. Cheung S, Tai J. Anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties of rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis. Oncology reports. 2007;17(6):1525-31.
31. Yesil-Celiktas O, Sevimli C, Bedir E, Vardar-Sukan F. Inhibitory effects of rosemary extracts, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid on the growth of various human cancer cell lines. Plant foods for human nutrition. 2010;65(2):158-63.
32. Liang Y-C, Tsai S-H, Tsai D-C, Lin-Shiau S-Y, Lin J-K. Suppression of inducible cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide synthase through activation of peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐γ by flavonoids in mouse macrophages. FEBS letters. 2001;496(1):12-8.
33. Lo A-H, Liang Y-C, Lin-Shiau S-Y, Ho C-T, Lin J-K. Carnosol, an antioxidant in rosemary, suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase through down-regulating nuclear factor-κB in mouse macrophages. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23(6):983-91.
34. Cheng A-C, Lee M-F, Tsai M-L, Lai C-S, Lee JH, Ho C-T, et al. Rosmanol potently induces apoptosis through both the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and death receptor pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2011;49(2):485-93.
35. Horiuchi K, Shiota S, Hatano T, Yoshida T, Kuroda T, Tsuchiya T. Antimicrobial activity of oleanolic acid from Salvia officinalis and related compounds on vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2007;30(6):1147-9.
36. Huang M-T, Ho C-T, Wang ZY, Ferraro T, Lou Y-R, Stauber K, et al. Inhibition of skin tumorigenesis by rosemary and its constituents carnosol and ursolic acid. Cancer research. 1994;54(3):701-8.
37. Talib WH, Mahasneh AM. Antiproliferative activity of plant extracts used against cancer in traditional medicine. Scientia pharmaceutica. 2010;78(1):33-46.
38. Sertel S, Eichhorn T, Plinkert PK, Efferth T. Cytotoxicity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil towards human oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Anticancer research. 2011;31(1):81-7.